The Biography and ๐˜‹๐˜ฆ๐˜ฎ๐˜ช๐˜ด๐˜ฆ of Ramesses II, Ramesses the Great

Ramesses II, also known as Ramesses the Great, was one of the most renowned pharaohs of ancient Egypt. He reigned for an impressive 66 years, from around 1279 to 1213 BC, during the New Kingdom period.

Ramesses II was born in 1303 BC in the city of Pi-Ramesses, the capital of Egypt at the time. He was the son of Pharaoh Seti I and Queen Tuya. At the age of 14, Ramesses was appointed Prince Regent by his father, and he gained valuable military experience serving in various military campaigns.

When Ramesses II ascended to the throne, he embarked on numerous ambitious building projects and military campaigns, leaving a significant impact on ancient Egypt’s history. One of his most famous achievements was the construction of grand monuments and temples, including the famous Ramesseum and the temples at Abu Simbel. He aimed to leave a lasting legacy and assert his authority as a powerful ruler.

Ramesses II is perhaps best known for his military campaigns, particularly his clashes with the Hittites, a powerful kingdom in Anatolia. The most famous battle of his reign was the Battle of Kadesh, fought against the Hittite forces. The battle ended in a stalemate but was later celebrated as a great victory by Ramesses II in his monumental reliefs and inscriptions.

In his personal life, Ramesses II was known for his numerous wives and children. He is believed to have fathered over 100 children, which contributed to his vast dynasty. One of his most prominent wives was Nefertari, who held a significant position in his court and was highly revered.


Ancient statue of Ramesses II. Source: BigStockPhoto

One of the victories of Ramesses IIโ€™s reign was the Battle of Kadesh. This was a battle fought between the Egyptians, led by Ramesses II and the Hittites under Muwatalli for the control of Syria. The battle took place in the spring of the 5 th year of the reign of Ramesses II, and was caused by the defection of the Amurru from the Hittites to Egypt. This defection resulted in a Hittite attempt to bring the Amurru back into their sphere of influence. Ramesses II would have none of that and decided to protect his new vassal by marching his army north. The pharaohโ€™s campaign against the Hittites was also aimed at driving the Hittites, who have been causing trouble for the Egyptians since the time of the pharaoh Thutmose III, back beyond their borders.


Pharaoh Ramesses II with bow and arrow. Source: BigStockPhoto

According to the Egyptian accounts, the Hittites were defeated by them, and Ramesses II had gained a great victory. The story of this victory is most famously monumentalised on the inside of the temple of Abu Simbel. In this relief, the larger than life pharaoh is shown riding on a chariot and striking down his Hittite enemies. Indeed, this image succeeds in conveying the sense of power and triumph that Ramesses II aspired to achieve. Nevertheless, according to the Hittite accounts, it seems that the Egyptian victory was not so great after all, and that it was exaggerated by Ramesses II for the purpose of propaganda. What is clear, however, is that power relations in the ancient Near East were significantly changed after this battle. The first known peace treaty was signed between the Egyptians and the Hittites, and the Hittites were recognised as one of the regionโ€™s superpowers. This treaty would also set the stage for Egyptian-Hittite relations for the next 70 years or so.


Abu Simbel Temple of King Ramses II, a masterpiece of pharaonic arts and buildings in Old Egypt. Source: BigStockPhoto

Despite being the one of the most powerful men on earth during his life, Ramesses II did not have much control over his physical remains after his แด…แด‡แด€ั‚ะฝ. While his mummified body was originally buried in the tomb KV7 in the Valley of the Kings, looting by grave robbers prompted the Egyptian priests to move his body to a safer resting place. The actions of these priests have rescued the mummy of Ramesses II from the looters, only to have it fall into the hands of archaeologists. In 1881, the mummy of Ramesses II, along with those of more than 50 other rulers and nobles were discovered in a secret royal cache at Dier el-Bahri. Ramesses IIโ€™s mummy was identified based on the hieroglyphics, which detailed the relocation of his mummy by the priests, on the linen covering the body of the pharaoh. About a hundred years after his mummy was discovered, archaeologists noticed the deteriorating condition of Ramesses IIโ€™s mummy and decided to fly it to Paris to be treated for a fungal infection. Interestingly, the pharaoh was issued an Egyptian passport, in which his occupation was listed as โ€˜King (deceased)โ€™. Today, the mummy of this great pharaoh rests in the Cairo Museum in Egypt.


The mummy of Ramesses II. Photo source .



Comment Disabled for this post!